There are two classes of problems: those that are considered well defined and others that are considered ill defined. Well-defined problems are those problems whose goals, path to solution, and obstacles to solution are clear based on the information given. For example, the problem of how to calculate the price of a sale item is well defined. You see the original price on the tag, calculate the discount percentage, and subtract this amount from the original price. The solution is a straightforward calculation.

In contrast, ill-defined problems are characterized by their lack of a clear path to solution. Such problems often lack a clear problem statement as well, making the task of problem definition and problem representation quite challenging. For example, the problem of how to find a life partner is an ill-defined problem. How do you define “life partner”? What traits should that individual have? Where do you look to find such a person?

Only after considerable work has been done to formulate the problem can an ill-defined problem become tractable. Even at this stage, however, the path to solution may remain fuzzy. Multiple revisions of the problem representation may be necessary in order to find a path to a solution. In contrast to well-defined problems, ill-defined problems can lead to more than one “correct” solution. The solution process for well-defined problems has been studied extensively, often using algorithms to describe how each step of a problem is solved (e.g., Newell & Simon, 1972).

A well-defined problem can be broken down into a series of smaller problems. The problem may then be solved using a set of recursive operations or algorithms. In contrast, algorithms cannot be used to solve ill-defined problems precisely because the problem cannot be easily defined as a set of smaller components.

Excerpt fromDavidson, J., & Sternberg, R. (Eds.). (2003).The Psychology of Problem Solving. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511615771

# PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS: WELL DEFINED vs ILL-DEFINED PROBLEMS.

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